ATLANTA AND THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT, 1944-1968

" This book is a portable exhibition. The photographs tell a beautiful narrative of the struggle, fortitude, and organizational strength of a people determined to eradicate Jim Crow segregation once and for all." ~ Karcheik Sims-Alvarado, Ph.D.

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PAGE 9: A WATERSHED MOMENT IN THE LONG STRUGGLE FOR JUSTICE AND EQUALITY WAS THE US SUPREME COURT DECISION IN SMITH V. ALLWRIGHT, DECLARING IT UNCONSTITUTIONAL TO DENY A CITIZEN, REGARDLESS OF RACE, FROM PARTICIPATING IN PRIMARY ELECTIONS, OFTEN REFERRED TO AS "WHITE PRIMARIES"  (PERMISSION  OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 9: A WATERSHED MOMENT IN THE LONG STRUGGLE FOR JUSTICE AND EQUALITY WAS THE US SUPREME COURT DECISION IN SMITH V. ALLWRIGHT, DECLARING IT UNCONSTITUTIONAL TO DENY A CITIZEN, REGARDLESS OF RACE, FROM PARTICIPATING IN PRIMARY ELECTIONS, OFTEN REFERRED TO AS "WHITE PRIMARIES"  (PERMISSION  OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 19: AS AFRICAN AMERICAN VOTERS INCREASED IN LARGE NUMBERS DURING THE POSTWAR YEARS, SO TOO DID RECRUITMENT OF WHITE SUPREMACY GROUPS. FLANKED BY THREE YOUNG INITIATES IS DR. SAMUEL GREEN, GRAND DRAGON OF THE KU KLUX KLAN, ON JULY 23, 1948, WHILE STANDING BEFORE STONE MOUNTAIN (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 19: AS AFRICAN AMERICAN VOTERS INCREASED IN LARGE NUMBERS DURING THE POSTWAR YEARS, SO TOO DID RECRUITMENT OF WHITE SUPREMACY GROUPS. FLANKED BY THREE YOUNG INITIATES IS DR. SAMUEL GREEN, GRAND DRAGON OF THE KU KLUX KLAN, ON JULY 23, 1948, WHILE STANDING BEFORE STONE MOUNTAIN (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 22: ATLANTA NEWSPAPERS DID NOT SHY AWAY FROM BRINGING ATTENTION TO THE QUADRUPLE MURDER OF TWO BLACK COUPLES.  PICTURED, MOURNERS ATTEND THE FUNERAL OF THE  VICTIMS AT MOUNT PERY BAPTIST CHURCH IN BISHOP, GEORGIA (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS).

PAGE 22: ATLANTA NEWSPAPERS DID NOT SHY AWAY FROM BRINGING ATTENTION TO THE QUADRUPLE MURDER OF TWO BLACK COUPLES.  PICTURED, MOURNERS ATTEND THE FUNERAL OF THE  VICTIMS AT MOUNT PERY BAPTIST CHURCH IN BISHOP, GEORGIA (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS).

PAGE: 29: DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. AND HIS WIFE, CORETTA,  RETURNED TO ATLANTA FOLLOWING THE SUCCESSFUL 381-DAY MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT (PERMISIION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE: 29: DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. AND HIS WIFE, CORETTA,  RETURNED TO ATLANTA FOLLOWING THE SUCCESSFUL 381-DAY MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT (PERMISIION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 43: INSPIRED LIKE OTHER STUDENT ACTIVISTS ATTENDING HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES ACROSS THE UNITED STATES, ATLANTA UNIVERSITY CENTER STUDENTS MOBILIZED TO LAUNCH A SERIES OF DEMONSTRATIONS TO END LEGALIZED SEGREGATION IN PUBLIC FACILITIES (PERMISSION OF THE HENDON HOME MUSEUM). 

PAGE 43: INSPIRED LIKE OTHER STUDENT ACTIVISTS ATTENDING HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES ACROSS THE UNITED STATES, ATLANTA UNIVERSITY CENTER STUDENTS MOBILIZED TO LAUNCH A SERIES OF DEMONSTRATIONS TO END LEGALIZED SEGREGATION IN PUBLIC FACILITIES (PERMISSION OF THE HENDON HOME MUSEUM). 

PAGE 45: WOMEN WERE VITAL TO THE MODERN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. IN MARCH 1960, SPELMAN COLLEGE SGA PRESIDENT, ROSLYN POPE, PENNED  AN APPEAL FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. THIS MANIFESTO, CONTAINING A LIST OF DEMANDS, ARTICULATED THE TENETS OF THE 20TH-CENTURY CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. THE APPEAL, LIKE DAVID WALKER'S 1829 APPEAL TO THE COLORED CITIZENS OF THE WORLD,  IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS PENNED BY AN AMERICAN (PERMISSION OF DR. ROSLYN POPE).

PAGE 45: WOMEN WERE VITAL TO THE MODERN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. IN MARCH 1960, SPELMAN COLLEGE SGA PRESIDENT, ROSLYN POPE, PENNED  AN APPEAL FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. THIS MANIFESTO, CONTAINING A LIST OF DEMANDS, ARTICULATED THE TENETS OF THE 20TH-CENTURY CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENTS. THE APPEAL, LIKE DAVID WALKER'S 1829 APPEAL TO THE COLORED CITIZENS OF THE WORLD,  IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS PENNED BY AN AMERICAN (PERMISSION OF DR. ROSLYN POPE).

PAGE 46: AN APPEAL FOR HUMAN RIGHTS WAS PUBLISHED IN THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION, ATLANTA JOURNAL, AND ATLANTA DAILY WORLD ON MARCH 9, 1960 (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). FOLLOWING THE PUBLICATION OF THE APPEAL, ATLANTA UNIVERSITY STUDENTS FORMED THE ORGANIZATION, COMMITTEE ON APPEAL FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (COAHR). (PERMISSION ON THE ASSOCIATED PRESS).

PAGE 46: AN APPEAL FOR HUMAN RIGHTS WAS PUBLISHED IN THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION, ATLANTA JOURNAL, AND ATLANTA DAILY WORLD ON MARCH 9, 1960 (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). FOLLOWING THE PUBLICATION OF THE APPEAL, ATLANTA UNIVERSITY STUDENTS FORMED THE ORGANIZATION, COMMITTEE ON APPEAL FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (COAHR). (PERMISSION ON THE ASSOCIATED PRESS).

PAGE 53: DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. WAS ARRESTED ALONG WITH 52 STUDENTS ON OCTOBER 19, 1960 FOR ATTEMPTING TO INTEGRATE A CAFETERIA AT RICH'S DEPARTMENT STORE. TAKEN AWAY IN A POLICE CAR DRIVEN BY ATLANTA POLICE CAPTAIN R.E.. LITTLE ARE DR. KING AND STUDENT ACTIVISTS, AGNUS BLONDEAN ORBERT (NELSON), MARILYN PRICE, AND LONNIE KING (OBSCURED). 

PAGE 53: DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. WAS ARRESTED ALONG WITH 52 STUDENTS ON OCTOBER 19, 1960 FOR ATTEMPTING TO INTEGRATE A CAFETERIA AT RICH'S DEPARTMENT STORE. TAKEN AWAY IN A POLICE CAR DRIVEN BY ATLANTA POLICE CAPTAIN R.E.. LITTLE ARE DR. KING AND STUDENT ACTIVISTS, AGNUS BLONDEAN ORBERT (NELSON), MARILYN PRICE, AND LONNIE KING (OBSCURED). 

PAGE 73: DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. BECAME AN INTERNATIONAL LEADER FOR SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND ECONOMIC EQUALITY AS HE DELIVERED HIS FAMOUS "I HAVE A DREAM," SPEECH BEFORE A QUARTER OF  A MILLION  ATTENDEES DURING THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON FOR JOBS AND FREEDOM ON AUGUST 28, 1963 (PERMISSION OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, PRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS DIVISION). 

PAGE 73: DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. BECAME AN INTERNATIONAL LEADER FOR SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND ECONOMIC EQUALITY AS HE DELIVERED HIS FAMOUS "I HAVE A DREAM," SPEECH BEFORE A QUARTER OF  A MILLION  ATTENDEES DURING THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON FOR JOBS AND FREEDOM ON AUGUST 28, 1963 (PERMISSION OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, PRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS DIVISION). 

PAGE 75: ATTENDEES OF THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON FOR JOBS AND FREEDOM ARE SHOWN CARRYING PLACARDS ON THE NATIONAL MALL IN WASHINGTON, DC (PERMISSION OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, PRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS DIVISION).

PAGE 75: ATTENDEES OF THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON FOR JOBS AND FREEDOM ARE SHOWN CARRYING PLACARDS ON THE NATIONAL MALL IN WASHINGTON, DC (PERMISSION OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, PRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS DIVISION).

PAGE 61: IN EXAMINING AFRICAN-AMERICANS' QUEST FOR FREEDOM, NONVIOLENT DIRECT-ACTION TACTICS VARIED BASED ON, IN THE WORDS OF CONGRESSMAN JOHN LEWIS, "DIFFERENT FORMS OF OPPRESSION." PICTURED HERE, ATLANTA UNIVERSITY CENTER STUDENTS STAGE A SIT-IN AT A DOWNTOWN ATLANTA LUNCH COUNTER IN JANUARY 1964 (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 61: IN EXAMINING AFRICAN-AMERICANS' QUEST FOR FREEDOM, NONVIOLENT DIRECT-ACTION TACTICS VARIED BASED ON, IN THE WORDS OF CONGRESSMAN JOHN LEWIS, "DIFFERENT FORMS OF OPPRESSION." PICTURED HERE, ATLANTA UNIVERSITY CENTER STUDENTS STAGE A SIT-IN AT A DOWNTOWN ATLANTA LUNCH COUNTER IN JANUARY 1964 (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 86: THE DAY FOLLOWING THE SIGNING OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 BY PRESIDENT LYNDON B. JOHNSON, REVS. GEORGE WILLIS JR., WOODROW T. LEWIS, AND ALBERT L. DUNN ATTEMPTED TO INTEGRATE THE PICKRICK RESTAURANT OWNED BY STAUNCH SEGREGATIONIST LESTER MADDOX. THE THREE MEN WERE DENIED SERVICE AND SHOVED OUT OF THE RESTAURANT. AN ASSOCIATED PRESS PHOTOGRAPHER CAPTURED REV. WILLIS JR. (LEFT) WALKING TO HIS CAR FOLLOWED BY MADDOX, POINTING A SHORT PISTOL, AND HIS SON HOLDING AN AX HANDLE (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 86: THE DAY FOLLOWING THE SIGNING OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 BY PRESIDENT LYNDON B. JOHNSON, REVS. GEORGE WILLIS JR., WOODROW T. LEWIS, AND ALBERT L. DUNN ATTEMPTED TO INTEGRATE THE PICKRICK RESTAURANT OWNED BY STAUNCH SEGREGATIONIST LESTER MADDOX. THE THREE MEN WERE DENIED SERVICE AND SHOVED OUT OF THE RESTAURANT. AN ASSOCIATED PRESS PHOTOGRAPHER CAPTURED REV. WILLIS JR. (LEFT) WALKING TO HIS CAR FOLLOWED BY MADDOX, POINTING A SHORT PISTOL, AND HIS SON HOLDING AN AX HANDLE (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 89: IN JANUARY 1965, SCLC DIRECTOR REV. C.T. VIVIAN LED A GROUP OF DEMONSTRATORS IN PRAYOR AS THEY ATTEMPTED TO ENTER THE DALLAS COUNTY  COURTHOUSE TO REGISTER TO VOTE. DEPUTY SHERIFF JIM CLARK STRUCK REV. VIVIAN DURING A NATIONALLY TELEVISED PROGRAM (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS).

PAGE 89: IN JANUARY 1965, SCLC DIRECTOR REV. C.T. VIVIAN LED A GROUP OF DEMONSTRATORS IN PRAYOR AS THEY ATTEMPTED TO ENTER THE DALLAS COUNTY  COURTHOUSE TO REGISTER TO VOTE. DEPUTY SHERIFF JIM CLARK STRUCK REV. VIVIAN DURING A NATIONALLY TELEVISED PROGRAM (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS).

PAGE 90: ON FEBRUARY 13, 1965, SCLC FIELD DIRECTOR HOSEA WILLIAMS INFORMS A CROWD OF DEMONSTRATORS IN SELMA, ALABAMA THAT "COME HELL OR HIGH WATER," THEY WILL MARCH TO THE DALLAS COUNTY COURTHOUSE TO VOTE (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 90: ON FEBRUARY 13, 1965, SCLC FIELD DIRECTOR HOSEA WILLIAMS INFORMS A CROWD OF DEMONSTRATORS IN SELMA, ALABAMA THAT "COME HELL OR HIGH WATER," THEY WILL MARCH TO THE DALLAS COUNTY COURTHOUSE TO VOTE (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 92: DURING THE FIRST ATTEMPT TO MARCH FROM SELMA TO MONTGOMERY, SCLC FIELD DIRECTOR HOSEA WILLIAMS AND SNCC CHAIRMAN JOHN LEWIS LED MORE THAN 500 DEMONSTRATORS ACROSS THE EDMOND PETTIS BRIDGE ON MARCH 7, 1965. THE CROWD WAS MET WITH BLOODSHED AS STATE TROOPERS AND POLICE OFFICERS SWUNG BILLY CLUBS AND TRAMPLED AND TEAR GASSED MALE AND FEMALE PROTESTORS. LEWIS IS PICTURED RECEIVING BLOWS TO THE HEAD AND BODY (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 92: DURING THE FIRST ATTEMPT TO MARCH FROM SELMA TO MONTGOMERY, SCLC FIELD DIRECTOR HOSEA WILLIAMS AND SNCC CHAIRMAN JOHN LEWIS LED MORE THAN 500 DEMONSTRATORS ACROSS THE EDMOND PETTIS BRIDGE ON MARCH 7, 1965. THE CROWD WAS MET WITH BLOODSHED AS STATE TROOPERS AND POLICE OFFICERS SWUNG BILLY CLUBS AND TRAMPLED AND TEAR GASSED MALE AND FEMALE PROTESTORS. LEWIS IS PICTURED RECEIVING BLOWS TO THE HEAD AND BODY (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 94: ON MACRCH 25, 1965, MORE THAN 25,000 DEMONSTRATORS COMPLETED THE FINAL STRETCH OF THE 54-MILE MARCH FROM SELMA TO MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA  (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 94: ON MACRCH 25, 1965, MORE THAN 25,000 DEMONSTRATORS COMPLETED THE FINAL STRETCH OF THE 54-MILE MARCH FROM SELMA TO MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA  (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 97: JULIAN BOND WAS BANNED ON JANUARY 10, 1966, FROM TAKING HIS SEAT IN THE GEORGIA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES BECAUSE OF HIS SUPPORT OF SNCC'S ANTI-WAR STANCE ON VIETNAM (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS).

PAGE 97: JULIAN BOND WAS BANNED ON JANUARY 10, 1966, FROM TAKING HIS SEAT IN THE GEORGIA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES BECAUSE OF HIS SUPPORT OF SNCC'S ANTI-WAR STANCE ON VIETNAM (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS).

PAGE 60: THE PHILOSOPHY AND DIRECTION OF SNCC SHIFTED DRAMATICALLY IN 1966 WHEN STOCKELY CARMICHAEL (FAR RIGHT) SUCCEEDED JOHN LEWIS AS CHAIRMAN. RUBY DORIS SMITH ROBINSON REPLACED JAMES FORMAN AS EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, AND CLEVELAND SELLERS WAS ELECTED AS PROGRAM DIRECTOR (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 60: THE PHILOSOPHY AND DIRECTION OF SNCC SHIFTED DRAMATICALLY IN 1966 WHEN STOCKELY CARMICHAEL (FAR RIGHT) SUCCEEDED JOHN LEWIS AS CHAIRMAN. RUBY DORIS SMITH ROBINSON REPLACED JAMES FORMAN AS EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, AND CLEVELAND SELLERS WAS ELECTED AS PROGRAM DIRECTOR (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS). 

PAGE 114: DR. KING WAS ASSASSINATED ON APRIL 4, 1968.  BEFORE THE SLAIN CIVIL RIGHTS LEADER'S BODY WAS RETURNED TO ATLANTA, A FUNERAL WAS HELD FOR MOURNERS IN MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE. AN UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN CONCEALS HER FACE AS SHE GRIEVES OVER THE LOSS OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS LEADER (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS).

PAGE 114: DR. KING WAS ASSASSINATED ON APRIL 4, 1968.  BEFORE THE SLAIN CIVIL RIGHTS LEADER'S BODY WAS RETURNED TO ATLANTA, A FUNERAL WAS HELD FOR MOURNERS IN MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE. AN UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN CONCEALS HER FACE AS SHE GRIEVES OVER THE LOSS OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS LEADER (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS).

PAGE 118: AN ESTIMATED 200,000 PEOPLE LINED THE STREETS OF ATLANTA TO VEIW OR TO WALK BEHIND THE MULE-DRAWN WAGON CARRYING THE BODY OF DR, KING.                  THE MOVING SCENE WAS VIEWED BY MORE THAN 120 MILLION VIEWERS ON LIVE TELEVISION. 

PAGE 118: AN ESTIMATED 200,000 PEOPLE LINED THE STREETS OF ATLANTA TO VEIW OR TO WALK BEHIND THE MULE-DRAWN WAGON CARRYING THE BODY OF DR, KING.                  THE MOVING SCENE WAS VIEWED BY MORE THAN 120 MILLION VIEWERS ON LIVE TELEVISION. 

PAGE 126: A FEW MONTHS AFTER HER HUSBAND'S DEATH, CORETTA SCOTT KING ANNOUNCED HER PLANS TO ESTABLISH THE MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. CENTER FOR NONVIOLENT SOCIAL CHANGE IN ATLANTA. IN 1983. THE FEDERAL HOLIDAY HONORING DR. KING WAS SIGNED INTO LAW BY PRESIDENT RONALD REGAN (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS).

PAGE 126: A FEW MONTHS AFTER HER HUSBAND'S DEATH, CORETTA SCOTT KING ANNOUNCED HER PLANS TO ESTABLISH THE MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. CENTER FOR NONVIOLENT SOCIAL CHANGE IN ATLANTA. IN 1983. THE FEDERAL HOLIDAY HONORING DR. KING WAS SIGNED INTO LAW BY PRESIDENT RONALD REGAN (PERMISSION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS).